Averrhoa Bilimbi - A Natural Coagulant For Rubber Latex

Summary

Averrhoa Bilimbi - A Natural Coagulant for Rubber Latex

    Rubber products are plays an significant role  in the modern world.The world rubber market was crushed by the rapid development of the more efficient rubber plantations of South east Asia and america. However, the prospects of developing plantations did not begin on a high note.

A common fruit seen in our area named Bilimbi [Averrhoa Bilimbi] is found in abundance and generally considered as weed fruit, is also known to have medicinal value in ancient Indian traditional system. To check its potential in other areas we have tried an extract from this fruit  which acts as a natural non- corrosive coagulating agent for rubber latex.

       1litre of Bilimbi extract is prepared by grinding 1kg of Bilimbi fruit with 100ml of water. To coagulate 2litres of Rubber Latex, we have to add 60ml of filtered Bilimbi extract. It took 10hours to coagulate. We observed that using our method, rubber latex coagulated 6hours faster than the current method of rubber latex mixed with formic acid .The current method which is produced synthetically in the industries using toxic chemicals such as methanol, carbon monoxide and sodium methoxide.

      Rubber Latex is a colloid in which rubber particles dispersed in water solution and are negatively charged. Effectiveness of the acid to coagulate depends on the number of positive ions. While Bilimbi extract is added to the rubber latex a physical reaction takes place by neutralizing the negative colloidal particles in the rubber latex and makes them bigger particles. If the rubber latex exceeds 10-6m, the particles settle down and the coagulation takes place.

        Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bilimbi extract indicated the presence of oxalic acid and acetic acid. When the rubber latex is coagulated with both oxalic and acetic acid together the coagulation period reduced into minimum which is almost equivalent to Bilimbi extract. As oxalic acid contains 2 replaceable hydrogen atoms and acetic acid contains one replaceable hydrogen atom there may be the formation of 3 hydrogen ions, which can coagulate faster than formic acid which produces only 1 H+ion. Oxalic acid may also be responsible for Diels Alder reaction with rubber particals.

.                           We have conducted Physiochemical tests like anti bacterial, anti fungal, pH and TLC of bilimbi extract. The pH of the extract is 1.31.As it has anti microbial property the rubber sheet cannot be infected by microbes easily. Tests like viscosity, pH, element test and surface tension tests were conducted

        Tensile, hardness, elasticity and the density of both the rubber sheets are measured without any significant difference. Therefore we can infer that our natural coagulant used for rubber coagulation is equally good.

        Also, Formic acid is highly corrosive and more expensive than bilimbi extract which is easily available in bulk, eco friendly, non toxic, natural alternative.

Question / Proposal

Rubber products are playing an significant role  in the modern world.With the invention of the automobile in the late 19th century, the rubber boom began. Farmers are using formic acid to coagulate rubber latex for the preperation of rubber sheet but after the coagulation of rubber latex the remained decanted solution is discarded to the soil which makes the soil acidic and makes the soil infertile which inturn makes the soil unfit for agriculture. Whereas the decanted solution remained after the coagulation of rubber latex which is coagulated using bilimbi extract is neutral, this is due to the natural pH of bilimbi extract is completely utilized for the coagulation of rubber latex.The Formic acid they use for the coagulation is highly toxic corrosive causes pollution and have high price, Moreover farmers use paranitro phenol to formic acid to get a golden honey coloured rubber sheet whereas while we coagulate rubber latex using bilimbi extract it naturally gives golden honey colour due to the presence of lignin in its fruit coat.                                                                                                                                                                              Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bilimbi extract indicated the presence of oxalic acid and acetic acid. When the rubber latex is coagulated with both oxalic and acetic acid together the coagulation period reduced into minimum which is almost equivalent to Bilimbi extract. As oxalic acid contains 2 replaceable hydrogen atoms and acetic acid contains one replaceable hydrogen atom there may be the formation of 3 hydrogen ions, which can coagulate faster than formic acid which produces only 1 H+ion. Oxalic acid may also be responsible for Diels Alder reaction with rubber particals.
 As per our investigation with farmers nearby we came to know that the rubber sheet which is being coagulated using bilimbi extract is more reliable, increased shelf life and good quality.

      Our aim is to prepare rubber products which is prepared by coagulating rubber latex with bilimbi extract which may be far more better than the existing materials.

 

 

 

Research

              Rubber is one of the most important products to come out of the rainforest. Though indigenous rainforest dwellers of South America have been using rubber for generations, it was not until 1839 that rubber had its first practical application in the industrial world. In the modern days rubber products are highly used in the various fields of engineering and automobiles for all this rubber products the source is Rubber latex which we obtain form the rubber tree by tapping process .So usually farmers add Formic acid to the rubber latex for the coagulation [hardening the rubber milk] to make rubber sheet and then selling to the local Rubber Boards .But the Formic acid they use for the coagulation is highly toxic corrosive causes pollution and have high price, along this acid farmers also add Para nitro phenol to obtain Golden honey colour to rubber sheet .And after the coagulation of rubber latex the remained decanted solution is discarded to the soil which makes the soil acidic and makes the soil infertile which inturn makes the soil unfit for agriculture.

Aims and Objectives ·       

To coagulate the natural rubber latex quickly. ·       

To replace formic acid and acetic acid which are more volatile, corrosive and not easy to store. ·       

To prepare economically good, easily preparable, naturally effective coagulant. ·       

To develop and study the novel product significantly.        

 To manufacture the better Quality rubber products form the rubber sheet coagulated using Bilimbi Extract which is  natural ,eco-friendly and low cost.

.

Role of ingredients

Rubber Latex is a colloid in which rubber particles dispersed in water solution and are negatively charged. Effectiveness of the acid to coagulate depends on the number of positive ions. While Bilimbi extract is added to the rubber latex a physical reaction takes place by neutralizing the negative colloidal particles in the rubber latex and makes them bigger particles. If the rubber latex exceeds 10-6m, the particles settle down and the coagulation takes place.

        Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bilimbi extract indicated the presence of oxalic acid and acetic acid. When the rubber latex is coagulated with both oxalic and acetic acid together the coagulation period reduced into minimum which is almost equivalent to Bilimbi extract. As oxalic acid contains 2 replaceable hydrogen atoms and acetic acid contains one replaceable hydrogen atom there may be the formation of 3 hydrogen ions, which can coagulate faster than formic acid which produces only 1 H+ion. Oxalic acid may also be responsible for Diels Alder reaction in rubber formation.

                      

                             Results and Discussion

                      As per the results obtained, it is assessed that the extract of Bilimbi can coagulate natural rubber latex faster and gives a better quality rubber than formic acid. Tests like anti bacteria, anti fungal, TLC, viscosity, pH, element and surface tension tests are conducted.

                 The preliminary analysis indicated that the Bilimbi extract sample contains primarily oxalic acid and acetate. Density found to be same for both the rubber sheets. We also conducted solvent test using Benzene and turpentine. Bilimbi coagulated rubber sheet is more resistant to heat than Formic acid coagulated rubber sheet.

                 Chemical structure of the rubber sheets are compared through FTIR. The result shows that there is no major difference in the structure of the sheets.

                Quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis are undertaken to ascertain the chemical reaction on the product.

              Tensile, hardness, elasticity and the density of both the rubber sheets are measured without any significant difference. Therefore we can infer that our natural coagulant used for rubber coagulation is equally good.

                 

                   

Method / Testing and Redesign

               Experiments and Testings conducted in the Rubber Sheet Factory 

The land contaminated near the Rubber Factory due to the discard of decantated solution which is remained after which is remained after coagulation process of rubber latex    

Results

Bilimbi Extract  Rubber sheet FTIR Graph                                         Formic acid Rubber sheet FTIR Graph                                             

Conclusion

                                  

                         Conclusion

From our project we concluded that Averrhoa Bilimbi is plant based, eco friendly, easily available and natural product which coagulate rubber latex easily compared to formic acid.

                                     

 

                     Advantages

Ø Plant based

Ø Eco friendly

Ø Natural

Ø Easily available and can plat it in between the rubber trees

Ø Contains easy methodology

Ø Non toxic

Ø Available bulky

Ø No side effects.

 

Experimentation and disscussion on  the rubber sheet and bilimbi extract concluded that,

Ø Bilimbi extract coagulates 6hrs faster than formic acid.

Ø Cost of formic acid per litre is 325Rs whereas we have prepared a product BIMBCOAGULATER which costs 30Rs per litre.

Ø The quality of the rubber sheet of Bilimbi is higher than formic acid rubber sheet.

Ø Moreover farmers add Para Nitro Phenol to formic acid to get golden honey color for the rubber sheet whereas Bilimbi extract gives this color naturally.

Ø Preparation of rubber sheet is safe while preparing with Bilimbi extract, precautions must be taken when handling with Formic acid.

Ø Therefore we can coagulate that our product is natural, environmental friendly, safe, cheaper and effective.

                          

 

                               Future Scope

Ø Removing the green colour[chlorophyll] from extract.

Ø Manufacturing different rubber products from rubber sheet coagulated with Bilimbi.

Ø Improving the quality of rubber sheet according to the rubber products

 

 

 

                               

 

About me

Hello, i am A U Nachiketh Kumar. 16 Years old .I am from Uppinangady a small village in karnataka state of India.I love exploring and imagining, whether it be the massive Hercules –corona walls of universe  or a minute drop of water.  I enjoy outdoor activities. I started this journey of mine since seventh grade. Since then I’ve participated in various science fairs showcasing my little inventions that could have a significant impact on the people of society. With such profound knowledge in the field of science and the inexorable march of technology in the world, I believe we have the greatest tools to fix the damages caused t our earth and positively impact every human to help them live a royal life. At grade 7, I invented a Novel Ointment from the weed plant Adiantum Lunulantum for itchy boils and pus cells .A year later,I designed and created a model named conversation of energy where energy is converted to different for by an single form energy simultaneously . I have also researched  and made study on the culture and food system of Tribal people who were named as Malekudiyas  and related their system to morden life . Both inventions won first place in State science/invention competitions and further it sparked my interest in science and innovations.  I admire all the great innovators who have changed the world, but my direct inspiration comes from my parents and the great scientists who have dedicated their life for science.  However, I am more interested in the material science which will help the society further .  I aspire to bridge engineering and suatainability by inventing technology to explore the mysteries of the Nature.  To be frank, I am not sure exactly what I want to study in the future just yet, I'm thinking it will probably be the Sciences.Winning the Google Science Fair will shine a spotlight on my technology and innovation, making it available to the millions in need.Winning would mean to me would be a great inspiration for me and I believe I would feel much more motivated in my studies and career choices, knowing that someone believes in what I'm doing. I also know that the prizes could also enable me to get more sophisticated equipment and materials for building a more effective design, and make our nation get benifit of innovation.

 

Hello, i am Aman K A, I am from puttur a small town in karnataka state of India. I love science at the most and also biological science. Whenever i see a interesting subject i start to imaginate. When I was a small boy i always dreamt of becoming a scientist. But when i read their bio i came to know that each have come up with some new and innovative ideas, whereas i was blank. So one day I went near my mom and asked her that does she know any traditional system of doing something so that I can relate that to science. So she suggested to make vinegar from the fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi. I knew that if the extract contains acetic acid then it is suitable for the preparation of vinegar. Unfortunately I got negative result. I was so depressed that i cannot make a new project. Then one of my friend came to me with an injured hand and I asked what happenned to him and the reply was that he had burnt his hand while he was adding formic acid to the rubber latex so as to coagulate it. So I got the idea of this project and as soon as I got this flash of idea I informed this to my science teacher and so on it continued to a deep research. Soon I got the opportunity to meet Dr Harish Bhatt who was a scientist in IIsc when I was in Rajkot, Gujarat. He taught us various procedures to continue this project in a specific manner. Currently have no ideas about my future plans but i have a zeal to complete arenautical engineering. Winning google science fair can really change my life, like I can use those for my upcoming careers.

 

 

Health & Safety

The list of institutions where we conducted various experiments to develope our project research-

Indian Institute of Science [IIsc]

CV Raman Rd, Bengaluru,

Karnataka 560012

Scientists Name-

  • Dr Harish Bhat

         chairman

         Science Society of India  

  • Mr Narayan Iyer

         President 

         Science Society of India  

  • Dr Arnab Battacharya

         TIFR

         Chief Mentor,

         Science Society of India

 

Yenapoya Research Center 

Deralakatte Manglore 575018

Karnataka

Rekha P D

 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre [BARC]

Trombay, Anushakti Nagar,

Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085

 

National Institute of Technology Karnataka [NITK]

NH 66, Shrinivas Nagar

Surathkal

Manglore -575025

Mentor:

Dr Arun Isloor 

HOD Material Engineering Depratment, NITK

 

KVG Engineering college 

Sullia

Mentor:

  • Dr Manugesh

         professor

         Chemistry department

         KVG engineering college Sullia

  • Dr Shiva Kumar

         Managing director

         Chemistry department

          KVG engineering college Sullia

 

Vivekanada PU and Degree college 

Nehru Nagar Puttur

Karnataka

 

Government Degree college

Uppinangady

Puttur Taluk-574241

Supervisor

  • Prof Manjunath 

         Chemistry Lecturer

 

Indraprtastha PU College

Uppinangady

Puttur Taluk

Supervisor

  • Ms Jayanthi A K 

         Chemistry lecturer

         Chemistry Department 

  • Ms Harinakshi 

         Biology Lecturer

         Biology Department

  • Mr Mohan K

         Lab Assistant

  • Nishitha K K

         Science Teacher 

         Indraprastha Vidyalaya

  • Jayanth Kulsherkar

          Retired profecer

         St.Agnus college

         Mangluru

All our experiments related to coaglation of rubber latex is done with the help of a experienced worker who gave all precautionary instructions to us.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography, references, and acknowledgements

                                                                             Future Scope

Ø Removing the green colour[chlorophyll] from extract.

Ø Manufacturing different rubber products from rubber sheet coagulated with Bilimbi.

Ø Improving the quality of rubber sheet according to the rubber products

 

       

 

                                                                                 Bibliography

  • https://www.aplustopper.com/tag/latex-coagulation-mechanism/
  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed., Maryland : USA 
  • Baimark, Y.,Niamsa, N. (2009). Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33, 994–998.  Ferreira, V.S., Rego, I.N.C., Pastore, F., Mandai, M.M., Mendes, L.S., Santos, K.A.M.,Rubim,        J.C.,Suarez,
  • P.A.Z. (2005). The use of smoke acid as an alternative coagulating agent for natural rubber sheet.production. Bioresource Technology, 96, 605–609.
  •  Rose, K.; Steinbuchel, A. (2 June 2005). "Biodegradation of Natural Rubber and Related Compounds: Recent Insights into a Hardly Understood Catabolic Capability of Microorganisms". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71 (6): 2803–2812. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.2803-2812.2005. PMC 1151847
  • Anurag A. Agrawal; d Kotaro Konno (2009). "Latex: a model for understanding mechanisms, ecology, and evolution of plant defense Against herbivory". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 40: 311–331. 
  • Ambili, Savithri; Appian, Subramoniam; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam (2009). Studies on the Antihyperlipidemic Properties of Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit in Rats. Planta Med. "Averrhoa bilimbi". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  • EMEA Committee for veterinary medicinal products, oxalic acid summary report, December 2003
  • Partridge, Everett P. (1931). "Acetic Acid and Cellulose Acetate in the United States A General Survey of Economic and Technical Developments". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 23 (5): 482–498.
  • Togeas, James B. (2005). "Acetic Acid Vapor: 2. A Statistical Mechanical Critique of Vapor Density Experiments". Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 109 (24): 5438–5444. 
  • Public domain UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), ecoport.com article: Cecil, John; Mitchell, Peter; Diemer, Per; Griffee, Peter (2013). "Processing of Natural Rubber, Manufacture of Latex-Grade Crepe Rubber". ecoport.org. FAO, Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service.
  •  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averrhoa_bilimbi
  •  https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html
  •  http://www.onlyfoods.net/bilimbi.html
  • http://product-finder.basf.com/group/corporate/product-finder/en/literature-document:/Brand+Formic+Acid-Brochure--Formic+acid+for+the+rubber+industry-English.pdf
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latex
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_rubber
  • www.intermediates.basf.com/chemicals/formic-acid/latex-coagulation
  • rubberchemtechnol.org/doi/pdf/10.5254/1.3540001
  • https://www.britannica.com/science/rubber-chemical.../Tapping-and-coagulation
  • Ambili, Savithri; Appian, Subramoniam; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam (2009). "Studies on the Antihyperlipidemic Properties of Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit in Rats". Planta Med. 75 
  • Tekasakul, P.,Tekasakul, S. (2006). Environmental problems related to natural rubber production inThailand. Journal Aerosol Research, 21(2), 122–129.Phetphaisit, W. Theangphet, P., Udeye, V.,Sa–nguanthanmmarong, P. 2012. Effect of bio–organicliquid as a rubber coagulant for natural rubber sheets production. Naresuan University Science Journal, 9(1), 68–79.
  • Hoven, Vipavee P.; Rattanakaran, Kesinee; Tanaka, Yasuyuki (1 November 2003). "Determination of Chemical Components that Cause Mal-Odor from Natural Rubber". Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 76 (5): 1128–1144. doi:10.5254/1.3547792
  • Brydson, J.A. (30 November 1988). Rubbery Materials and their Compounds. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-1851662159.
  • Linos, Alexandros; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Steinbuchel, Alexander (October 1999). "A Gram-negative bacterium, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa AL98, is a potent degrader of natural rubber and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 182:

 

 

 

 

 

  1.                                                                  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

            We thank everyone who helped us especially our parents who gave us the opportunity to join the INSEF competetion . We are greatly indebted to our esteemed Guide Akshatha. B for her valuable  guidance. We  also express our gratitude to those  who gave us  valuable suggestion and  opinions.

We  specially  extand  our sincere  gratitude to Yenapoya  University Deralakatte and Mr. Umesh who provided rubber latex to us.

                                   

 We also extend our sincere gratitude to:

Rekha  P.D                                                        Umesh
Head of  yenapoya  Research center               Devagiri  house
Yenapoya   University                                       Andetadka  Beltangady T Deralakatte

Karnataka Laboratory                                        Ravindra D
Hampankatta                                                     The Principal
Mangaluru                                                          Indraprastha  vidyalaya

Punyashree                                                        Ankush  Ananth Bhat
Computer Teacher                                              uppinangady
Indraprastha  vidyalaya                                       puttur T Q
Uppinangady

Mrs. Nishtha K K                                                  Mr. Sadashiva    

Science Teacher                                                  Drawing teacher

Indraprastha Vidyalaya                                        Indraprastha Vidyalaya

Uppinangady                                                       Uppinangady

 

Mr. Praveen Varnakuteera                                   Dr.Swapna

Drawing teacher                                                   Researcher

Indraprastha Vidyalaya                                         Yenepoya university     

Uppinangady                                                        Deralakatte Mangaluru

 

Sashidhar                                                             Manjunath Sir

Manufacture of the rubber latex                           chemistrist

Devagiri house                                                     Govt high School

Andetadka                                                            Uppinangady

Belthangady                                                          Puttur Taluk

 

Mr Harsh Bhat 

Chairman 

Science society of india 

 

Mr. Narayan Iyer,

I2 Innovate

President,

Science Society of India

 

Dr. Arnab Bhattacharya,

TIFR

Chief Mentor,

Science Society of India

 

Priyanka                                                            

Resercher                                                            

Yenapoya Research Center

Deralakatte

Mangalore    

                                                   

kishor M

Researcher

Yenapoya Research Center

Deralakatte

Mangalore

 

Jayanth Kulsherkar

Retired profecer

St.Agnus college

Mangluru

 

Dr.Arun Isloor

Associate professor

Chemistry department

 

Dr maugesh

professor

Chemistry department

KVG engineering college Sullia

 

 Shva Kumar

Managing director

Chemistry department

KVG engineering college Sullia

 

Swapna

Resercher

Yenapoya Research Center

Deralakatte

Mangalore

 

Priyanka

 Resercher

Yenapoya Research Center

Deralakatte

Mangalore

 

Ravi Narayan

Rubber cultivator

Noojibail bannengala puttur 

 

Akshatha B

Teacher

Indraprastha vidyalaya Uppinangady

 

Malathi D

Teacher

Indraprastha vidyalaya Uppinangady

 

Veena Prasad

Teacher

Indraprastha vidyalaya

Uppinangady

 

 Mahesh K K

Head of chemistry department

Vivekananda pu collage

Puttur

 

Shashidhar

production manager

Rubber factory devagiri

Belthangadi

 

Jose Sir

 Teacher

Indraprastha vidyalaya

Uppinangady

 

Rajesh pai

Buissness person

uppinangady

 

Shriram

Buissness person

uppinangady

 

We are also greatful to many of the educational institution which have provided best infrastructure to make our project a successful one

 

Indian Institute of Science (IIsc)

Bangalore

Karnataka

 

Bhabha Atomic research Centre

Mumbai

Maharashtra

 

National Institute of Technology Karnataka [NITK]

NH 66, Shrinivas Nagar

Surathkal

Manglore -575025

 

Indraprastha PU college

Uppinangady

 Puttur Taluk-574241

 

Vivekananda Degree college

Nehru Nagar

Puttur taluk-574241

 

Government Degree college

Uppinangady

Puttur Taluk-574241

 

KVG Engineering College

Sullia

Belthangady Taluk

 

Yenapoya Research Centre

Deralakatte

Mangalore