A Cost Effective Way for Increasing Plant Growth through Increased Atmospheric Pressure and Photonic Frequency with Nutrient Deficiency Indicator

Summary

The idea for my project is especially inclined towards the low yield of crops per hectare that India, presently is facing. On a thorough research I found that the reason for this was the obsolete cropping practices prevalent in my country and the urgency of an increase in the agricultural produce due to the growing population. Having stayed for a month in Munnar, a hillstation in Kerela, I found that the gram seeds which I sowed grew about 0.68 times the rate at which it grew in my hometown, which was quite noticeable to me. On research I came to know that the rate of plant growth increases with an increase in atmospheric pressure. I shared my research with my Science Teacher and developed a hypothesis for a Plant Growth Enhancer and Nutrient Disperser which was extremely cost efficient yet accurate to be used in India. Further to make the project even more efficient, I partnered with my pal to design an underwater farming system which will increase the atmospheric pressure on the crops without the need of an additional pumping system which will be helpful in a country with a huge coastal line.

The coastline of India with the resource courtesy of Wikipedia.

Question / Proposal

How can we boost the agricultural production times over with the least resources and cost?

In my Summer Vacations, my family went for a journey to Munnar, a hillstation in Kerela which is about 1532 m above sea level. I decided to sow few gram seeds in the containers disposed after the transport and was surprised to see that event in the presence of abundant sunlight and arficial maintainance of temperature, the plant germinate and growth slowed down yet noticibily in comparison to what I grow in my hometown which is 160 m above sea level. I concluded that the cause of this phenomenon was the low air pressure due to high altitude which may also be a cause for low carbon dioxide in the environment.

Thus I realized that on using a high pressurized environment we can prevent sturdier growth and unproductivity of crops by enabling them to grow faster and produce better yield through their sensitivity towards the red and blue light for an increased photosynthesis and least transpiration rate. This highly pressurized environment can be created with least energy beneath the sea shores and coastlines and beyond since the range of temperature inside water is quite small due to its high specific heat.

I strongly believe that with a hard effort, I can arrange all these systems to an impactful topology. This system will surely add a new chapter to agriculture by increasing the rate of crop production many times over.

Research

On my research, I found some quite fascinating ideologies such as using hydroponics which I am inclined to use and design my own. I love coding and designing critical algorithms so therefore I wanted to pile up all the other contributions under my very own project. To create a high pressurized environment is new and hence can be tricky to construct but mention should be made of a research organization named as Nemo's Garden which does perform few underwater plant growth experiments to which I am inclined to but I am designing my own cost friendly system to be accepted in a developing country like India. The design for my project is completely original and thus is accordingly made to boost growth and indicate and mitigate nutrient deficiencies on which I have worked for quite some time now due to my fascination for Biology. The sensors which will be used will be extremely self-made and cost effective and the program is mine original and it just uses a photocell and few LEDs, and it may calculate the difference in wavelenth of light reflected by the apical and terminal stems to find out a deficiency symptom. This is a subject which my State Jharkhand, is focusing in particular, i.e., increased rate of crop growth and to enable double and triple farming practices.

For this purpose I have also designed a terrestrial plan for regional and interior purposes which also impact positively on plant growth without any seemingly adverse effects and can be used as a new alternative for irrigation and fertilization. This plan,  being motivated by the Grahmin Saadhak Yojana launched by Government of India, uses the electrolytic property of soil to generate low frequency current wich can be harnessed in water and used to reduce the acidity of soil as well. This system can surely affect the pace of nation in a progressive way.

By conducting researches on plant growth we decided to practically work out the problems in the course of time.

Method / Testing and Redesign

The whole project especially research can be broadly divided into 3 major categories:

  • Plant response to light of differing wavelengths.
  • Plant response to different atmospheric pressures.
  • Different Indications of nutrient deficiencies.
  • Effect of difference in electric potentials in the soil.

My goal was to create a method which can excel plant growth and to make observations of plants when they suffer from a specific nutrient deficiency. It was a time taking procedure. I researched which compounds were responsible to provide a plant with a specific nutrient and how can these be decreased to observe the symptons for deficiency. The plant we chose was gram (Vigna radiata). Meanwhile, I decided to carry on an experiment for different responses of plant to different colours, the results of which I had already predicted. As I expected, the plant growth was faster in presence of red light in daytime with a slight shift in the spectrum untill it came near the yellow and blue light with a slight increase towards the blue spectrum. All the practical works were done at the Laboratories of our School using spectrum at first for observation followed by LEDs and under the supervision of my Science Teacher. Thus one part of the research was done in the Bio Lab and the plants' responses were noted. 

After already observing the fall in rate of plant growth in high altitude in my past vacations, what remained was to create a high pressurized environment which would not harm the plant in any way. I am a bit inclined that, after working out several ideas, that the best way was to create chambers of an elastic yet transparent material to enable infrared rays to enter through the waters and I found plastic ideal for this experiment. I planned to make a chamber which was to be attached to an air compressor which would administer air when needed. We first planned to sonify the deionised water for irrigation but found it harmful for the marine life. We then planned to irrigate the crops underwater by agitating the water molecules in the sea by particulate oscillations and designed our own sensors and my friend made it out. It was extremely cost friendly and most sensors was made from materials which were even below Rs. 20. This was a success in itself as we were now to make an integrated arduino environment with our codings to wirelessly provide information and to automatically work them out. I have thus planned a system which uses chambers and a compressor to pump in the compressed air if it gets low and the energy used would be partially from the Sun and the ionization potential of water for different elements.

What remained was the Deficiency Indicator which was to be tested out after a thorough research and refining of soil in the Chemistry Lab. The observations were conducted with a control setup which were devoid of interferences.

Thus by combining it all, we developed a system to boost crop growth.

Results

The most noticeable change or improvement I could noticibily make out was that the plants grew more rapidly in presence of red light and least in the lower spectrum i.e. the green and yellow spectrum.

Secondly that the plant growth was boosted significantly in low altitude and increase in air pressure.

The water loss in the whole system was least because by using water vapour as a medium for irrigation, the plant recieved water which condensed and reused again. Fertilizers were not used in the whole system as the growth process was aided by using loosely bounded compounds for the plants to absorb.

By differentiating the potential of different layers of the soil, an ionic movement was formed that made the nutritive ions more motile which boosted plant growth upto 1.43 times over.

As a whole, the results were quite fascinating for me with my Teacher. The whole system shortened the germination time, improved the rate of growth of young plants, and caused more massive and rapid root growth not only about twice (2.142) over but, on combining all the processes and maintaining the irrigation system through the means of water vapour also aided in the process as the transpiration rate would be minimum and will prevent sturdy growth of plants. 

The nutrient deficiency indicator, may be not that accurate, can be made accurate by imposing more algorithms in the program to calculate different factors through sensors and can be made plant specific by a more deep research and time for different symptoms in different variety of crops.

Thus by designing a system which would comprehend all these factors, the process would ensure no use of terrestrial area which would avert food crisis in the ensuing years as it would use the area covered with water for the agriculture purpose, especially in a developing country like India which has a huge coastline and fragmented share-holdings of farmers which leads to a reduced crop yield.

The sensors using this process are individually created and their costs are as follows:

The sensors may not be very accurate but suit our purpose perfectly.

Thus by creating and combining all these prospects, the project is bound to increase the growth rate (from germnation to expectant harvesting) and will surely bring a positive implementation.

 

Conclusion

The result of my experiments were indeed quite fascinating that this system could boost plant growth, the germination rate and the root growth more than 2.14 times which was achieved by increasing the air pressure alone.

By using ionizers at different levels of soil, the ionic movements in the direction of the plant did make a noticeable change and boosted the growth of gram seeds 1.4 times over in itself.

I came to know that by using the red light for the plant, the rate of photosynthesis significantly increased the rate transpiration which was curbed by an already saturated environment, the plant was way too elongated and the growth also increased significantly. 

The plant growth was quite reliable as it shared a common result for different stands of crops. This was a success for me as the whole system combined would make a very peak rise in their growth and limit the time for their yield.

The nutrient deficiency was not plant specific as the experiments were only carried on Vigna radiata plants and the results would obviously be slightly different for different crop varieties. The system were not only reliable by can be made much more productive if practically used in high pressure perhaps in the sea and other water bodies since the pressure developed is lot more.

This process will renew the prosperity in agricultural sector in India as it is rapidly ebbing out. The decline in the rate of Agricultural sector in India can be well experessed by the following graph issued by the Government of India :

About me

A students who is extremely passionate for Science and new learning. My passion is Biology and sharing my views on different Science Proposals to my teachers. My hobby is to surf WikiPedia and learn new concepts and develop alternative algorithms for varying purposes.

I got to encounter my lofty interest in science since I was in 8th Grade when I failed in most subjects including Science but the guidance and the counselling I recieved from my teacher, made me more passionate and focused towards academics and to turn a theoritical understanding into a positive cause for the Society.

In the course of time, I became extremely motivated by Prashaant, an IISF Winner and Google Science Fair State Winner, who had also studied in the same school and was my senior. This became a turning point in my life and since I bagged in the first prize Young Innovators contest conducted by the National Institute of Technology and the grand prize winners in the Innovation Contest organized by the National Metallurgy Laboratory, India. The main driving force of mine is that I want to constantly change my plans after each success to become different each time.

My aim is to qualify the AIIMS examinations and become a researcher in biomimicry.

I did never win a prize for myself, I did it just to express new methods for a better future. By showcasing my project in Google, it will not only give me a customary joy that I have a piece of contribution for a better world but will also make me stand as high as my idol.

Health & Safety

The most important precaution for proceeding alongwith my experiments with leaching the soil, is to be extremely careful while using your chemical flux to make the soil devoid of a nutrient.

Secondly, while working with infrared radiations, be sure to prevent burns and your eyesight. Hence, I tried to stay away from the apparatus as much possible also ensuring that the plant grows without interruptions.

Lastly, I want to express my caution while working with circuits especially for creating ionisation potentials in the soil to aid ionic movement to the favor of the plant. 

It was only due to the guidance and trust of my Science Teacher, Mrs. Anjalee, that I could safely carry out the experimentations.

The Laboratories which I used for the purpose all belonged to my school, Carmel Junior College, Jamshedpur; in the vicinity of my teacher whose contact is as follows:

sharma.anjalee@gmail.com

Bibliography, references, and acknowledgements

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher, Mrs. Anjalee Sharma as well the brainchild of so vast an event, Google, who gave me the golden opportunity to express this wonderful project, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.

References for this project are taken via the following resources:

  • Discovering the World Class 10 - Evergreen Publishers, 2019 Edition
  • wikipedia.org, my biggest companion.
  • instructables.com, my biggest motivation.
  • vox.com, which provides me with random ideas.
  • ISC Biology Class 12 - P.S. Verma, 2017 edition.

The Laboratories are located in Jamshedpur (Steel City), at my School, Carmel Junior College under close guidance of my teacher and lab manager Mrs. Anjalee Sharma.

Contact Detail: sharma.anjalee@gmail.com