Electricity From Traffic

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  • 1Short Project Description 
  • 2Summary 
  • 3About MeAbout Our Team 
  • 4Question / Proposal 
  • 5Research 
  • 6Method / Testing and Redesign 
  • 7Results 
  • 8Conclusion / Report 
  • 9Bibliography, References and Acknowledgements 

My Project is to convert the force exerted by the moving automobiles on the road surface into useable electrical energy, creating an alternative source of energy, reducing the enviromental pollution for the sustainable development of mankind.

My aim is to convert the energy exerted by the moving automobiles on the road surface to sufficient electrical energy, which can reduce the damage of pollution caused by power plants, making the world much more greener with a new source of alternative energy, with no daily investment, less maintenance, easy installation  which can cover vast area for electrification and agricultural development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Everyday a huge traffic moves on every road in different places, and the huge mass moving with a certain velocity exerts a huge amount of force on the road surface, therefore the question arises that CAN WE CONVERT THE FORCE INTO USEABLE ELECTRICAL ENERGY ??

YES WE CAN!!

" Energy can neither be created nor can be destroyed, it can be converted from one form to the other " - which leads me to my research.

We can generate minimum 3.778512 MegaWatt(approx,using local cycle dynamo)  electrical energy from 15.24mX500m stretch of road surface using the following mechanism:

A simple overview  :-

  • Small systems, named as capsules of size 10cmX10cm each, would be converting the downward force exerted by the automobiles running with a certain velocity, on each capsule, into useable electrical energy. A system of several similar capsules would be installed below the road surface, overlapped by a flexible road surface(using appropriate material).
  • Working of each capsule :-
  1. Converting the force into mechanical energy using crank shaft.
  2. Passing the circular motion of the crank shaft through a speed increasing gearbox to maximise rpm.
  3. Converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy (D.C)  by using the circular motion on dynamos.
  4. Linking the output of each capsule together to an appropriate bus system to maximise the Voltage and minimise the ampere [converting DC to AC inside the bus system].
  5. Linking the appropriate number of bus systems to a Grid system for further electrical distribution.

 

I study in St.Helen School, Kolkata,India. I love to do experiments in science, in real life, in different ways, and it is my favourite game. I love to make new types of gadgets from the waste electronic goods and learning from my failure giving rise to more curiosity.

In my childhood the working of machines made me curious to know the secret behind them, the curiosity lead me to ask several questions, which were mostly explained by my father, maternal uncle and my grandfather. My maternal uncle presented me a "mechanix" set at the age of 6yrs and an unassembled radio set, at the age of 10yrs which encouraged me to build different gadgets and also developed my skills in the field of electrical circuits and so on. Till now he and all my family memebers encouraged my innovation, which made me develop several experiments among which some failed and some were successful and it emerged as my passion and hobby.

I have been greatly influenced by the innovation and struggle of Steve Jobs and Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam. Iam fond of their way of thinking, and simplicity.

I want to study mechanical and computer engineering in my college level. My dream is to do research in the field of engineering in future.

Winning of this competition means greatest honour and recognition for me. It will open the opportunity to do higher studies in eminent institutions with scholarship, which my family can never afford, my dream will come true.

 

 

The primary question of my research is to find an alternative and renewable source of energy for sustainable development of human civilization which should be eco-friendly and economically viable, and can reduce all types of environmental pollution to some extent.

Hypothesis

Assumptions:

  1. Roads have traffic.
  2. Automobiles moves with a minimum velocity of 40km/hr.

The huge traffic running on the road surface generates a huge amount of energy(independent variable) which can be converted into useable electrical energy by my system. I have designed a small system, named as capsule(10cmX10cm in dimension) converts the force exerted on the road surface by the automobiles moving with a certain velocity into circular motion using crank shaft, then transmitting the circular motion to a gearbox(speed increasing 1:50 gear ratio) to maximize the rpm. Then by the output of the gearbox two dynamos(each of 6V & 3watt) are run, by 'V-belt' connection and then the output from two dynamos are connected to a diode(with appropriate specification) to stop the back flow of the electrical energy as all the capsules are connected to each other by a parallel circuit. Therefore each capsule has the maximum capacity of generating 6watt(dependent variable). The capsules would be placed throughout the surface area of the road with an overlapping of a flexible matt type road surface on it. Thus, whenever an automobile moves over each capsule, it generates electrical energy, therefore several capsules works simultaneously during a traffic movement(dependent variable).

 

 

I have found a research paper with similar aim, of converting the force exerted on the road surface into electrical energy. Peizo electric crystals were used in this research, to generate electricity from the force exerted on it.

In this system, the electricity generated is directly proportional to the mass of the automobiles moving over it.

This research paper or this system is having some disadvantages or drawbacks, such as :

  1. Not at all economically viable.
  2. Needs very frequent and high maintenance.
  3. Cannot be used on all the roadways(Peizo electric crystals are very mass sensitive, thus if an automobile with a mass more than the capacity of the crystals moves on the road surface, then all the peizo electric crystals will get permanently damaged).
  4. Generates comparatively less amount of electricity.

My Research Work:

My research work has developed small systems, named as capsules which are used in large numbers under the road surface(throughout the road surface area). Each capsule generates maximum of 6Watt electrical energy(dependent variable, depending on the velocity of the automobile(independent variable) running along the road).

The energy generated by each capsule is directly proportional to the velocity and frequency of the automobile not on its mass(therefore, can be used on every road ways).

Vital Parts Of The Entire System (All parts are practically available):

Road surface: The entire road surface is to be of a flexible matting type(appropriate material to be used).

Each Capsule(10cmX10cm in dimension):

  1.  Base Plate(Appropriate alloy or carbon nanotube to be used).
  2. Shaft(connecting the base plate with the crank-shaft)
  3. Spring(appropriate number of springs, with proper alloy composition and spring constant, as required for the full contraction of the spring by a mass of 250kg(minimum mass needed to be acting on the capsules to work)).
  4. Rollers(for smooth movement of the shaft).
  5. Crank-Shaft(to convert the linear motion to circular motion).
  6. Gear-box(1:50 gear-ratio to maximise the rpm of the circular motion transmitted by the crank-shaft).
  7. Dual-Pulley(on the output shaft of the gear-box).
  8. Two-'V'-belt linked with two dynamos(transmitting the circular motion of the gearbox to the dynamos)
  9. Two dynamos(each of 6V,3Watt).
  10. Output of the two dynamos are linked by parallel lines to a diode(on the positive pole) to stop the back flow of the electricity towards the dynamo, from the system(diode with specification for maximum 6Watt).

⇒Output energy of each capsule are linked together in a bus system, then all the bus systems are linked to a grid system.(bus and the grid systems can be designed on the basis of need and application).

⇒Each capsule would be covered by a hard-polymer casing to stop any kind of energy or eddy current loss.

[***the dynamo taken is the locally available compact cycle dynamo, parameters of this dynamo is taken for calculation, but any other powerful dynamo can be further used such as McMillan S3348B2716, which generates maximum 120V and 6Amps(http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-generator-voltage-pedal-power_mcmillan_S3348B2716.htm)]

Diagram of an individual capsule:

Top view of road surface having this system:

Side View Of The Entire System :

 

 

Inside the Capsule:

(i)The surface area of a capsule is 10cmX10cm. Whenever an automobile passes over the base plate of the capsule, the base plate moves up and down(up and down movement done by using appropriate number of springs with appropriate spring constant(spring contraction and expansion=10cm)),  with a certain time interval(time interval is an independent variable).

(ii) moving the crank-shaft in circular motion with the same time interval.

(iii) The circular motion is then transmitted to a gearbox by the output shaft of the crank-shaft(1:50gear ratio, speed increasing) to increase the rpm of the circular motion.

(iv) Then on the output shaft of the gear-box, dual-pulley is attached which runs two 'V'-belts('V'-belts are used because the rpm would be very high, which could have hampered the working, if gears were used to transmit the circular motion)(rpm is a dependent variable depending on the velocity and frequency of automobile passing over the capsule).

(v)Each 'V'-belt is attached to a small cycle dynamo(D.C)(6V, 3Watt(maximum) each (improved and compact dynamos can be used in further development)), thus in total two 'V'-belts are attached to two dynamos, for transmitting the circular motion to the dynamos.

(vi)The output electrical energy of the two dynamos are linked by a parallel circuit(total energy output(maximum): 6Watt, 6V, 1Ampere)(***the dynamo taken is the locally available compact cycle dynamo, parameters of this dynamo is taken for calculation, but any other powerful dynamo can be further used such as McMillan S3348B2716, which generates maximum 120V and 6Amps(http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-generator-voltage-pedal-power_mcmillan_S3348B2716.htm)) (dependent variable, depending on the rpm or the velocity and frequency of the automobiles).

(vii) The parallel line from the two dynamos are then connected to a diode(with appropriate specification, for the maximum of 6Watt from the dynamos) to stop the back flow of electricity towards the dynamo, as all the capsules would be working at different time intervals and all are connected in parallel line.

Mathematical Calculation for the generation of electricity from each Capsule:

Calculation for the rpm generated:

velocity(minimum) by which a wheel passes over a capsule=40km/hr = 1,111.111111cm/sec [assuming 40km/hr is the minimum speed]

length of a capsule=10cm

Therefore, time period for each revolution of the crank-shaft, or circular motion = 0.009sec [(1/1,111.111111)X10]

Output from the Gearbox= 50revolution in 0.009sec

Therefore, final rpm generated from the gearbox= 333,333.3333rpm = 333,333rpm(approx).

[ 1min = (50/0.009)X60 ]

Power Generated By Each Capsule:

The rpm generated can generate 3Watt, 6V electricity by a cycle dynamo(local cycle dynamo). Two dynamos are used in each capsule, therefore total energy generated= 2X3Watt = 6Watt.

(***the dynamo taken is the locally available compact cycle dynamo, parameters of this dynamo is taken for calculation, but any other powerful dynamo can be further used such as McMillan S3348B2716, which generates maximum 120V and 6Amps(http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-generator-voltage-pedal-power_mcmillan_S3348B2716.htm))

If McMillan S3348B2716 would be used, then the total power output would be = (2X720Watt) = 1440Watt =1.44KWatt ( by each capsule).

***Due to infrastructural and financial constraint practical testing could not be done, but mathematically and theoretically proven.

 

 

 

 

Output energy from each capsule(minimum velocity of the automobile taken as 40k/hr):

6Watt (if local dynamo is used) or

1440Watt or 1.44KWatt (if McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo would be used)

(***the dynamo taken is the locally available compact cycle dynamo, parameters of this dynamo is taken for calculation, but any other powerful dynamo can be further used such as McMillan S3348B2716, which generates maximum 120V and 6Amps(http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-generator-voltage-pedal-power_mcmillan_S3348B2716.htm))

Total Energy Generated From 1524cm wide and 50,000cm long Roadway:

Total number of capsules to be installed :

Gap between two capsules are taken as 1cm in the calculation for thermal expansion of the base plate (gap between of two capsules for thermal expansion will change depending on the alloy or material used for the base plate)

Dimension of a capsule= 10cm X 10cm.

Total number of Capsules = (Total Surface Area of the road surface) / (Total Surface area of each capsule +Area of the space between two capsules)

=(1524 X 50000) / (11 X 11)

= 76200000 / 121

= 629752.0661

= 629752 number of capsules to be installed in the roadway.

Therefore, Total Energy Generated = 629752 X 6Watt = 3778512Watt = 3.778512MegaWatt [If local cycle dynamo is used]

OR, Total Energy Generated = 629752 X 1440Watt = 906842880Watt = 906.842880MegaWatt [If McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo is used]

[ Ampere should be maintained near to 15Amps to prevent heat loss in the system. To maintain this, a set of capsules linked with each other by parallel circuit has to be connected in a bus system(bus system would be designed according to the application and need). Inside every individual bus system, D.C to A.C conversion will take place, then the voltage will be stepped up, lowering down the ampere(as needed). Then a set of bus systems will be connected to a Grid system(to be designed according to the application and need) from where further power distribution will take place (bus and grid system will be placed above the ground in a convenient place away from the roadway)].

***Due to infrastructural and financial constraint practical testing could not be done, but mathematically and theoretically proven. Thus the result is on the basis of the practically existing parts of this system and on theoritical calculations.

 

Summary Of My Research : *(all the output energy from the dynamos are dependent variable, depending on the velocity and frequency of the automobiles).

The result of my research comes out to be the succesful conversion of the force exerted on the road surface by the moving automobiles into useable electrical energy. The result of my reasearch shows that we can efficiently convert the force exerted by the moving automobiles on the road surface into electrical energy, which can be used for use of public parks or use, or in household utility and also for agricultural development etc. without effecting the enviroment and reducing more pollution caused by the different power plants.

Total Energy Generated By Each Capsule(assumed, an automobile moving with a velocity of 40km/hr) 

= 6Watt  [If local cycle dynamo is used] OR 1.44KWatt [If McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo is used] (maximum).(*)

Total Energy Developed On 1524cm wide and 50,000cm long roadway (assumed an automobile moving with a velocity of 40km/hr)

=  3.778512MegaWatt [If local cycle dynamo is used] OR  906.842880MegaWatt [If McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo is used](*)

[ ***the dynamo taken is the locally available compact cycle dynamo, parameters of this dynamo is taken for most of the calculations, but any other powerful dynamo can be further used such as McMillan S3348B2716, which generates maximum 120V and 6Amps(http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-generator-voltage-pedal-power_mcmillan_S3348B2716.htm) ].

⇒ My hypothesis and aim was to convert the force exerted by the moving automobiles on the road surface into useable electrical energy and to reduce the enviromental pollution. The results of my research supports my hypothesis, as by mathematical calculations it had been proved that the system is aligible to generate, 6Watt electricity from each capsule of size 10cmX10cm and 3.778512MegaWatt electricity from 1524cm wide and 50,000cm long roadway (assumed an automobile moving with a velocity of 40km/hr). And if McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo or any other developed dynamo can be used then we can generate more electricity, for example: 906.842880MegaWatt electricity can be generated by McMillan S3348B2716 dynamo. Therefore,  we can conclude that this system is practically viable as proved by the calculations and working process, which are elaborately described and written in different pages of this project.

The Limitation or Independent Variables Of My Reasearch Are :

  1. The electrical energy generated depends on the frequency and velocity of the automobiles or the traffic on the roadway.

Impact Of the Results of My Research In the Future :

It will

  1. Open a new window of an alternative and renewable source of energy.
  2. Reduce the enviromental pollution caused by the power plants, making the world much more greener and healthy.
  3. Help in the sustainable development of human civilization.
  4. Utilize the heavy traffic movement in different parts of the world efficiently to generate electricity.

My Reasearch work can be further developed with the help of good mechanical and electrical engineering skills and with better technological and infrastructural support, which can give rise to better results and efficiency.

 

 

 

Books and Websites:

  1. Google ( https://www.google.com )
  2. Dinesh Physics ( Author : R.C. Lakhanpal ), gave me basic knowledge of physics and helped me with several informations during my research.
  3. Wikipedia ( http://www.wikipedia.org/ )
  4. Pedal Power Generators ( http://www.pedalpowergenerator.com/voltage-curve-6W-bike-generator-dynamo.htm )
  5. http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CElectrical_Power_Generation_Using_Piezoelectric_Crystal.pdf ( Gave me information on the piezo electric crystals, its application and reserch works done on it ).

Everyone who contributed in my project :

  1. My father, Mr. B.N. Chakraborty, who is a mechanical and maintenance engineer. He helped me with the perfect engineering terms and with his practical knowledge from his experience. In my research, he helped me to choose the gear-ratio of the gearbox, and guided me whether the required parts are available in the real world or not.
  2. Mr Sumit Talukdar, my maternal uncle has contributed a lot in my research work. He guided me with the energy balance of the system, before designing it, to maintain the safety factor of the design. He also guided with the information about the piezo-electric crystals and with some perfect engineering terms of the parts used in my research.
  3. Dr. Acharya Sir, my school chemistry teacher, helped me with the information of the eddy current loss, which guided me or encouraged me to use hard polymer casing for the capsules.
  4. Mr. Moloi Haldar, an electrical engineer. He helped me with the solution of using diode, to stop the back flow of electricity towards the dynamo and also explained me the bus system in electrical engineering.
  5. Mr. Samar Chandra Talukdar, my grandfather, helped me by sharing his experience and knowledge on alloys and grid system of distribution of electricity.
  6. Mr. S.Kar, my another chemistry teacher, guided me with the further information on the piezo-electric crystals, its working and on the disadvantages of using piezo-eletric crystals, from his practical experience and knowledge.
  7. Sumana Chakraborty, my mother, worked as a mentor and supported me and insprired me from the beginning of this research, helping me to make the research paper maintaining the word limit.
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